The title article was written in 2007, millions of victims ago. At the accelerated pace of local genocides, the overall international total is so much greater. What the author does not mention, at all, are some of the other great genocidal holocausts of this last century. Nor is asked the question, on whose behalf are these wars being waged?
No mention is made of the victims of the Russian “Revolution”, the millions upon millions of White christian Russians slaughtered and starved to death by the International Jews. Nor of the South African Boer Camps established at the start of the last century. The list is endless.
Hopefully people are more receptive to facts than when this writing was first published. Sadly, waking up to the truth about us is sometimes slow, but it does come eventually and times are changing.
By Kurt Nimmo
It seems incomprehensible ~ since the end of the Second World War, the UnitedStates has been responsible for the death of between 20 and 30 million peoplein various conflicts and wars from Korea and Vietnam to Iraq and Afghanistan.
James A. Lucas, writing for Countercurrents.org in 2007,presents the evidence with plenty of documentation.
Of course, the toll pales when compared to the atrocities ofMao.
According to research conducted by Piero Scaruffi, Mao slaughtered between49-78,000,000, Stalin killed around 23,000,000 and Hitler 12 million.
The United States killed more than Stalin and Hitler?
We have totake into consideration the timeline ~ Hitler killed his victims in just over adecade and Stalin and Mao over the period of a few years (most of Mao’s victimswere killed during the “Cultural Revolution” and Stalin’s were killed duringUkraine’s engineered famine and also his political purges).
The United States ~ or rather its psychopathic rulers ~ havebeen more consistent and persistent in the mass murder business.
Or read the article in whole below:
DEATHSIN OTHER NATIONS SINCE WW II
DUE TO US INTERVENTIONS
By James A. Lucas
24 April, 2007
24 April, 2007
After the catastrophic attacks of September 11 2001 monumentalsorrow and a feeling of desperate and understandable anger began to permeatethe American psyche. A few people at that time attempted to promote a balancedperspective by pointing out that the United States had also been responsiblefor causing those same feelings in people in other nations, but they producedhardly a ripple. Although Americans understand in the abstract the wisdom ofpeople around the world empathizing with the suffering of one another, such areminder of wrongs committed by our nation got little hearing and was soonovershadowed by an accelerated “war on terrorism.”
But we must continue our efforts to develop understanding andcompassion in the world. Hopefully, this article will assist in doing that byaddressing the question “How many September 11ths has the United States causedin other nations since WWII?” This theme is developed in this report whichcontains an estimated numbers of such deaths in 37 nations as well as briefexplanations of why the U.S. is considered culpable.
The causes of wars are complex. In some instances nations otherthan the U.S. may have been responsible for more deaths, but if the involvementof our nation appeared to have been a necessary cause of a war or conflict itwas considered responsible for the deaths in it. In other words they probablywould not have taken place if the U.S. had not used the heavy hand of itspower. The military and economic power of the United States was crucial.
This study reveals that U.S. military forces were directlyresponsible for about 10 to 15 million deaths during the Korean and VietnamWars and the two Iraq Wars. The Korean War also includes Chinese deaths whilethe Vietnam War also includes fatalities in Cambodia and Laos.
The American public probably is not aware of these numbers andknows even less about the proxy wars for which the United States is alsoresponsible. In the latter wars there were between nine and 14 million deathsin Afghanistan, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor,Guatemala, Indonesia, Pakistan and Sudan.
But the victims are not just from big nations or one part of theworld. The remaining deaths were in smaller ones which constitute over half thetotal number of nations. Virtually all parts of the world have been the targetof U.S. intervention.
The overall conclusion reached is that the United States mostlikely has been responsible since WWII for the deaths of between 20 and 30million people in wars and conflicts scattered over the world.
To the families and friends of these victims it makes littledifference whether the causes were U.S. military action, proxy military forces,the provision of U.S. military supplies or advisers, or other ways, such aseconomic pressures applied by our nation. They had to make decisions aboutother things such as finding lost loved ones, whether to become refugees, andhow to survive.
And the pain and anger is spread even further. Some authoritiesestimate that there are as many as 10 wounded for each person who dies in wars.Their visible, continued suffering is a continuing reminder to their fellowcountrymen.
It is essential that Americans learn more about this topic sothat they can begin to understand the pain that others feel. Someone onceobserved that the Germans during WWII “chose not to know.” We cannot allowhistory to say this about our country. The question posed above was “How manySeptember 11ths has the United States caused in other nations since WWII?” Theanswer is: possibly 10,000.
COMMENTS ON GATHERING THESE NUMBERS
Generally speaking, the much smaller number of Americans whohave died is not included in this study, not because they are not important,but because this report focuses on the impact of U.S. actions on itsadversaries.
An accurate count of the number of deaths is not easy toachieve, and this collection of data was undertaken with full realization ofthis fact. These estimates will probably be revised later either upward ordownward by the reader and the author. But undoubtedly the total will remain inthe millions.
The difficulty of gathering reliable information is shown by twoestimates in this context. For several years I heard statements on radio thatthree million Cambodians had been killed under the rule of the Khmer Rouge.However, in recent years the figure I heard was one million. Another example isthat the number of persons estimated to have died in Iraq due to sanctionsafter the first U.S. Iraq War was over 1 million, but in more recent years,based on a more recent study, a lower estimate of around a half a million hasemerged.
Often information about wars is revealed only much later whensomeone decides to speak out, when more secret information is revealed due topersistent efforts of a few, or after special congressional committees makereports
Both victorious and defeated nations may have their own reasonsfor under reporting the number of deaths. Further, in recent wars involving theUnited States it was not uncommon to hear statements like “we do not do bodycounts” and references to “collateral damage” as a euphemism for dead and wounded.Life is cheap for some, especially those who manipulate people on thebattlefield as if it were a chessboard.
To say that it is difficult to get exact figures is not to saythat we should not try. Effort was needed to arrive at the figures of 6sixmillion Jews killed during WWI, but knowledge of that number now is widespreadand it has fueled the determination to prevent future holocausts. That strugglecontinues.
The author can be contacted at email@example.com
37 VICTIM NATIONS
The U.S. is responsible for between 1 and 1.8 million deathsduring the war between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan, by luring the SovietUnion into invading that nation. (1,2,3,4)The Soviet Union had friendly relations its neighbor,Afghanistan, which had a secular government. The Soviets feared that if thatgovernment became fundamentalist this change could spill over into the SovietUnion.In 1998, in an interview with the Parisian publication Le NovelObservateur, Zbigniew Brzezinski, adviser toPresident Carter, admitted that he had been responsible for instigating aid tothe Mujahedeen in Afghanistan which caused the Soviets to invade. In his ownwords:“According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the Mujahedeenbegan during 1980, that is to say, after the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan on24 December 1979. But the reality, secretly guarded until now, is completelyotherwise. Indeed, it was July 3, 1979 that President Carter signed the firstdirective for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.And that very day, I wrote a note to the President in which I explained to himthat in my opinion this aid was going to induce a Soviet militaryintervention.” (5,1,6)Brzezinski justified laying this trap, since he said it gave theSoviet Union its Vietnam and caused the breakup of the Soviet Union. “Regretwhat?” he said. “That secret operation was an excellent idea. It had the effectof drawing the Russians into the Afghan trap and you want me to regret it?” (7)The CIA spent 5 to 6 billion dollars on its operation inAfghanistan in order to bleed the Soviet Union. (1,2,3) When that 10-year warended over a million people were dead and Afghan heroin had captured 60% of theU.S. market. (4)The U.S. has been responsible directly for about 12,000 deathsin Afghanistan many of which resulted from bombing in retaliation for theattacks on U.S. property on September 11, 2001. Subsequently U.S. troopsinvaded that country. (4)
An indigenous armed struggle against Portuguese rule in Angolabegan in 1961. In 1977 an Angolan government was recognized by the U.N.,although the U.S. was one of the few nations that opposed this action. In 1986Uncle Sam approved material assistance to UNITA, a group that was trying tooverthrow the government. Even today this struggle, which has involved manynations at times, continues.U.S. intervention was justified to the U.S. public as a reactionto the intervention of 50,000 Cuban troops in Angola. However, according toPiero Gleijeses, a history professor at Johns Hopkins University the reversewas true. The Cuban intervention came as a result of a CIA – financed covertinvasion via neighboring Zaire and a drive on the Angolan capital by the U.S.ally, South Africa1,2,3). (Three estimates of deaths range from 300,000 to750,000 (4,5,6)
See South America: Operation Condor
Hugo Banzer was the leader of a repressive regime in Bolivia inthe 1970s. The U.S. had been disturbed when a previous leader nationalized thetin mines and distributed land to Indian peasants. Later that action to benefitthe poor was reversed.Banzer, who was trained at the U.S.-operated School of theAmericas in Panama and later at Fort Hood, Texas, came back from exilefrequently to confer with U.S. Air Force Major Robert Lundin. In 1971 he stageda successful coup with the help of the U.S. Air Force radio system. In thefirst years of his dictatorship he received twice as military assistance fromthe U.S. as in the previous dozen years together.A few years later the Catholic Church denounced an army massacreof striking tin workers in 1975, Banzer, assisted by information provided bythe CIA, was able to target and locate leftist priests and nuns. Hisanti-clergy strategy, known as the Banzer Plan, was adopted by nine other LatinAmerican dictatorships in 1977. (2) He has been accused of being responsiblefor 400 deaths during his tenure. (1)Also see: See South America:Operation Condor
See South America: OperationCondor
U.S. bombing of Cambodia had already been underway for severalyears in secret under the Johnson and Nixon administrations, but when PresidentNixon openly began bombing in preparation for a land assault on Cambodia itcaused major protests in the U.S. against the Vietnam War.There is little awareness today of the scope of these bombingsand the human suffering involved.Immense damage was done to the villages and cities of Cambodia,causing refugees and internal displacement of the population. This unstablesituation enabled the Khmer Rouge, a small political party led by Pol Pot, toassume power.Over the years we have repeatedly heard about the Khmer Rouge’srole in the deaths of millions in Cambodia without any acknowledgement beingmade this mass killing was made possible by the U.S. bombing of that nationwhich destabilized it by death , injuries, hunger and dislocation of itspeople.So the U.S. bears responsibility not only for the deaths fromthe bombings but also for those resulting from the activities of the KhmerRouge ~ a total of about 2.5 million people. Even when Vietnam later invadedCambodia in 1979 the CIA was still supporting the Khmer Rouge. (1,2,3)Also see Vietnam
An estimated 40,000 people in Chad were killed and as many as200,000 tortured by a government, headed by Hissen Habre who was brought to powerin June, 1982 with the help of CIA money and arms. He remained in power foreight years. (1,2)Human Rights Watch claimed that Habre was responsible forthousands of killings. In 2001, while living in Senegal, he was almost triedfor crimes committed by him in Chad. However, a court there blocked theseproceedings. Then human rights people decided to pursue the case in Belgium,because some of Habre’s torture victims lived there.The U.S., in June 2003, told Belgium that it risked losing itsstatus as host to NATO’s headquarters if it allowed such a legal proceeding tohappen. So the result was that the law that allowed victims to file complaintsin Belgium for atrocities committed abroad was repealed. However, two monthslater a new law was passed which made special provision for the continuation ofthe case against Habre.
The CIA intervened in Chile’s 1958 and 1964 elections. In 1970 asocialist candidate, Salvador Allende, was elected president. The CIA wanted toincite a military coup to prevent his inauguration, but the Chilean army’schief of staff, General Rene Schneider, opposed this action.The CIA then planned, along with some people in the Chileanmilitary, to assassinate Schneider. This plot failed and Allende took office.President Nixon was not to be dissuaded and he ordered the CIA to create a coupclimate: “Make the economy scream,” he said.What followed were guerilla warfare, arson, bombing, sabotageand terror. ITT and other U.S. corporations with Chilean holdings sponsoreddemonstrations and strikes. Finally, on September 11, 1973 Allende died eitherby suicide or by assassination. At that time Henry Kissinger, U.S. Secretary of State,said the following regarding Chile: “I don’t see why we need to stand by andwatch a country go communist because of the irresponsibility of its ownpeople.” (1)During 17 years of terror under Allende’s successor, GeneralAugusto Pinochet, an estimated 3,000 Chileans were killed and many others weretortured or “disappeared.” (2,3,4,5)Also see South America:Operation Condor
An estimated 900,000 Chinese died during the Korean War. Formore information, See: Korea.
One estimate is that 67,000 deaths have occurred from the 1960sto recent years due to support by the U.S. of Colombian state terrorism. (1)According to a 1994 Amnesty International report, more than20,000 people were killed for political reasons in Colombia since 1986, mainlyby the military and its paramilitary allies. Amnesty alleged that “U.S.-supplied military equipment, ostensibly delivered for use against narcoticstraffickers, was being used by the Colombian military to commit abuses in thename of “counter-insurgency.” (2)In 2002 another estimate was made that 3,500 people die eachyear in a U.S. funded civilian war in Colombia. (3)In 1996 Human Rights Watch issued a report “Assassination Squadsin Colombia” which revealed that CIA agents went to Colombia in 1991 to helpthe military to train undercover agents in anti-subversive activity. (4,5)In recent years the U.S. government has provided assistanceunder Plan Colombia. The Colombian government has been charged with using mostof the funds for destruction of crops and support of the paramilitary group.
In the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba on April 18, 1961 whichended after 3 days, 114 of the invading force were killed, 1,189 were taken prisonersand a few escaped to waiting U.S. ships. (1) The captured exiles were quicklytried, a few executed and the rest sentenced to thirty years in prison fortreason. These exiles were released after 20 months in exchange for $53 millionin food and medicine.Some people estimate that the number of Cuban forces killedrange from 2,000, to 4,000. Another estimate is that 1,800 Cuban forces werekilled on an open highway by napalm. This appears to have been a precursor ofthe Highway of Death in Iraq in 1991 when U.S. forces mercilessly annihilatedlarge numbers of Iraqis on a highway. (2)
DEMOCRATICREPUBLIC OF CONGO (FORMERLY ZAIRE)
The beginning of massive violence was instigated in this countryin 1879 by its colonizer King Leopold of Belgium. The Congo’s population wasreduced by 10 million people over a period of 20 years which some have referredto as “Leopold’s Genocide.” (1)The U.S. has been responsible for about a third of that manydeaths in that nation in the more recent past. (2)In 1960 the Congo became an independent state with PatriceLumumba being its first prime minister. He was assassinated with the CIA beingimplicated, although some say that his murder was actually the responsibilityof Belgium. (3)But nevertheless, the CIA was planning to kill him. (4) Beforehis assassination the CIA sent one of its scientists, Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, tothe Congo carrying “lethal biological material” intended for use in Lumumba’sassassination. This virus would have been able to produce a fatal disease indigenousto the Congo area of Africa and was transported in a diplomatic pouch.Much of the time in recent years there has been a civil warwithin the Democratic Republic of Congo, fomented often by the U.S. and othernations, including neighboring nations. (5)In April 1977, Newsday reported that the CIA was secretlysupporting efforts to recruit several hundred mercenaries in the U.S. and GreatBritain to serve alongside Zaire’s army. In that same year the U.S. provided$15 million of military supplies to the Zairian President Mobutu to fend off aninvasion by a rival group operating in Angola. (6)In May 1979, the U.S. sent several million dollars of aid toMobutu who had been condemned 3 months earlier by the U.S. State Department forhuman rights violations. (7) During the Cold War the U.S. funneled over 300million dollars in weapons into Zaire (8,9) $100 million in military trainingwas provided to him. (2)In 2001 it was reported to a U.S. congressionalcommittee that American companies, including one linked to former PresidentGeorge Bush Sr., were stoking the Congo for monetary gains. There is aninternational battle over resources in that country with over 125 companies andindividuals being implicated. One of these substances is coltan, which is usedin the manufacture of cell phones. (2)
In 1962, Juan Bosch became president of the Dominican Republic.He advocated such programs as land reform and public works programs. This didnot bode well for his future relationship with the U.S., and after only 7months in office, he was deposed by a CIA coup.In 1965 when a group was trying to reinstall him to his officePresident Johnson said, “This Bosch is no good.” Assistant Secretary of StateThomas Mann replied “He’s no good at all. If we don’t get a decent governmentin there, Mr. President, we get another Bosch. It’s just going to be anothersinkhole.”Two days later a U.S. invasion started and 22,000 soldiers andmarines entered the Dominican Republic and about 3,000 Dominicans died duringthe fighting. The cover excuse for doing this was that this was done to protectforeigners there. (1,2,3,4)
In December 1975, Indonesia invaded East Timor. This incursionwas launched the day after U.S. President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had left Indonesia wherethey had given President Suharto permission to use American arms, which underU.S. law, could not be used for aggression. Daniel Moynihan, U.S. ambassador tothe UN. said that the U.S. wanted “things to turn out as they did.” (1,2)The result was an estimated 200,000 dead out of a population of700,000. (1,2)Sixteen years later, on November 12, 1991, two hundred and seventeenEast Timorese protesters in Dili, many of them children, marching from amemorial service, were gunned down by Indonesian Kopassus shock troops who wereheaded by U.S.- trained commanders Prabowo Subianto (son in law of GeneralSuharto) and Kiki Syahnakri. Trucks were seen dumping bodies into the sea. (5)
The civil war from 1981 to1992 in El Salvador was financed by $6billion in U.S. aid given to support the government in its efforts to crush amovement to bring social justice to the people in that nation of about 8million people. (1)During that time U.S. military advisers demonstrated methods oftorture on teenage prisoners, according to an interview with a deserter fromthe Salvadoran army published in the New York Times. This former member of theSalvadoran National Guard testified that he was a member of a squad of twelvewho found people who they were told were guerillas and tortured them. Part ofthe training he received was in torture at a U.S. location somewhere in Panama.(2)About 900 villagers were massacred in the village of El Mozotein 1981. Ten of the twelve El Salvadoran government soldiers cited asparticipating in this act were graduates of the School of the Americas operatedby the U.S. (2)They were only a small part of about 75,000 people killed duringthat civil war. (1)According to a 1993 United Nations’ Truth Commission report,over 96 % of the human rights violations carried out during the war werecommitted by the Salvadoran army or the paramilitary deaths squads associatedwith the Salvadoran army. (3)That commission linked graduates of the School of the Americasto many notorious killings. The New York Times and the Washington Post followed with scathingarticles. In 1996, the White House Oversight Board issued a report thatsupported many of the charges against that school made by Rev. Roy Bourgeois,head of the School of the Americas Watch. That same year the Pentagon releasedformerly classified reports indicating that graduates were trained in killing,extortion, and physical abuse for interrogations, false imprisonment and othermethods of control. (4)
The CIA began to destabilize Grenada in 1979 after MauriceBishop became president, partially because he refused to join the quarantine ofCuba. The campaign against him resulted in his overthrow and the invasion bythe U.S. of Grenada on October 25, 1983, with about 277 people dying. (1,2)Itwas fallaciously charged that an airport was being built in Grenada that couldbe used to attack the U.S. and it was also erroneously claimed that the livesof American medical students on that island were in danger.
In 1951 Jacobo Arbenz was elected president of Guatemala. Heappropriated some unused land operated by the United Fruit Company andcompensated the company. (1,2)That company then started a campaign to paint Arbenz as a toolof an international conspiracy and hired about 300 mercenaries who sabotagedoil supplies and trains. (3)In 1954 a CIA-orchestrated coup put him out of office and heleft the country. During the next 40 years various regimes killed thousands ofpeople.In 1999 the Washington Post reported that an HistoricalClarification Commission concluded that over 200,000 people had been killedduring the civil war and that there had been 42,000 individual human rightsviolations, 29,000 of them fatal, 92% of which were committed by the army. Thecommission further reported that the U.S. government and the CIA had pressuredthe Guatemalan government into suppressing the guerrilla movement by ruthlessmeans. (4,5)According to the Commission between 1981 and 1983 the militarygovernment of Guatemala ~ financed and supported by the U.S. government ~destroyed some four hundred Mayan villages in a campaign of genocide. (4)One of the documents made available to the commission was a 1966memo from a U.S. State Department official, which described how a “safe house”was set up in the palace for use by Guatemalan security agents and their U.S.contacts. This was the headquarters for the Guatemalan “dirty war” againstleftist insurgents and suspected allies. (2)
From 1957 to 1986 Haiti was ruled by Papa Doc Duvalier and laterby his son. During that time their private terrorist force killed between30,000 and 100,000 people. (1)Millions of dollars in CIA subsidies flowed into Haiti duringthat time, mainly to suppress popular movements, (2) although most Americanmilitary aid to the country, according to William Blum, was covertly channeledthrough Israel.Reportedly, governments after the second Duvalier reign wereresponsible for an even larger number of fatalities, and the influence on Haitiby the U.S., particularly through the CIA, has continued. The U.S. later forcedout of the presidential office a black Catholic priest, Jean Bertrand Aristide,even though he was elected with 67% of the vote in the early 1990s. The wealthywhite class in Haiti opposed him in this predominantly black nation, because ofhis social programs designed to help the poor and end corruption. (3)Later he returned to office, but that did not last long. He wasforced by the U.S. to leave office and now lives in South Africa.
In the 1980s the CIA supported Battalion 316 in Honduras, whichkidnapped, tortured and killed hundreds of its citizens. Torture equipment andmanuals were provided by CIA Argentinean personnel who worked with U.S. agentsin the training of the Hondurans. Approximately 400 people lost their lives.(1,2)This is another instance of torture in the world sponsored bythe U.S. (3)Battalion 316 used shock and suffocation devices ininterrogations in the 1980s. Prisoners often were kept naked and, when nolonger useful, killed and buried in unmarked graves. Declassified documents andother sources show that the CIA and the U.S. Embassy knew of numerous crimes,including murder and torture, yet continued to support Battalion 316 andcollaborate with its leaders.” (4)Honduras was a staging ground in the early 1980s for the Contraswho were trying to overthrow the socialist Sandinista government in Nicaragua.John D. Negroponte, currently Deputy Secretary of State, was our ambassadorwhen our military aid to Honduras rose from $4 million to $77.4 million peryear. Negroponte denies having had any knowledge of these atrocities during histenure. However, his predecessor in that position, Jack R. Binns, had reportedin 1981 that he was deeply concerned at increasing evidence of officiallysponsored/sanctioned assassinations. (5)
In 1956 Hungary, a Soviet satellite nation, revolted against theSoviet Union. During the uprising broadcasts by the U.S. Radio Free Europe intoHungary sometimes took on an aggressive tone, encouraging the rebels to believethat Western support was imminent, and even giving tactical advice on how tofight the Soviets. Their hopes were raised then dashed by these broadcastswhich cast an even darker shadow over the Hungarian tragedy.” (1)The Hungarian and Soviet death toll was about 3,000 and therevolution was crushed. (2)
In 1965, in Indonesia, a coup replaced General Sukarno withGeneral Suharto as leader. The U.S. played a role in that change of government.Robert Martens,a former officer in the U.S. embassy in Indonesia, described howU.S. diplomats and CIA officers provided up to 5,000 names to Indonesian Armydeath squads in 1965 and checked them off as they were killed or captured.Martens admitted that “I probably have a lot of blood on my hands, but that’snot all bad. There’s a time when you have to strike hard at a decisive moment.”(1,2,3)Estimates of the number of deaths range from 500,000 to 3million. (4,5,6)From 1993 to 1997 the U.S. provided Jakarta with almost $400million in economic aid and sold tens of million of dollars of weaponry to thatnation. U.S. Green Berets provided training for the Indonesia’s elite forcewhich was responsible for many of atrocities in East Timor. (3)
Iran lost about 262,000 people in the war against Iraq from 1980to 1988. (1) See Iraq for more information about that war.On July 3, 1988 the U.S. Navy ship, the Vincennes, was operatingwithin Iranian waters providing military support for Iraq during the Iran-Iraqwar. During a battle against Iranian gunboats it fired two missiles at anIranian Airbus, which was on a routine civilian flight. All 290 civilian onboard were killed. (2,3)
A: The Iraq-Iran War lasted from 1980 to 1988 and during that timethere were about 105,000 Iraqi deaths according to the Washington Post. (1,2)
According to Howard Teicher, a former National Security Councilofficial, the U.S. provided the Iraqis with billions of dollars in credits andhelped Iraq in other ways such as making sure that Iraq had military equipmentincluding biological agents This surge of help for Iraq came as Iran seemed tobe winning the war and was close to Basra. (1) The U.S. was not adverse to bothcountries weakening themselves as a result of the war, but it did not appear towant either side to win.
B: TheU.S.-Iraq War and the Sanctions Against Iraq extended from 1990 to 2003.
Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990 and the U.S. responded bydemanding that Iraq withdraw, and four days later the U.N. levied internationalsanctions.Iraq had reason to believe that the U.S. would not object to itsinvasion of Kuwait, since U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, April Glaspie, had toldSaddam Hussein that the U.S. had no position on the dispute that his countryhad with Kuwait. So the green light was given, but it seemed to be more of atrap.As a part of the public relations strategy to energize theAmerican public into supporting an attack against Iraq the daughter of theKuwaiti ambassador to the U.S. falsely testified before Congress that Iraqitroops were pulling the plugs on incubators in Iraqi hospitals. (1)This contributed to a war frenzy in the U.S.The U.S. air assault started on January 17, 1991 and it lastedfor 42 days. On February 23 President H.W. Bush ordered the U.S. ground assaultto begin. The invasion took place with much needless killing of Iraqi militarypersonnel. Only about 150 American military personnel died compared to about200,000 Iraqis.Some of the Iraqis were mercilessly killed on the Highway ofDeath and about 400 tons of depleted uranium were leftin that nation by the U.S. (2,3)Other deaths later were from delayed deaths due to wounds,civilians killed, those killed by effects of damage of the Iraqi water treatmentfacilities and other aspects of its damaged infrastructure and by thesanctions.In 1995 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N.reported that U.N sanctions against on Iraq had been responsible for the deathsof more than 560,000 children since 1990. (5)
Leslie Stahl on the TV Program 60 Minutes in 1996 mentioned toMadeleine Albright, U.S. Ambassador to the U.N.“We have heard that a half million children have died. I mean,that’s more children than died in Hiroshima. And ~ and you know, is the priceworth it?”Albright replied“I think this is a very hard choice, but the price ~ we think isworth it.” (4)In 1999 UNICEF reported that 5,000 children died each month as aresult of the sanction and the War with the U.S. (6)Richard Garfield later estimated that the more likely number ofexcess deaths among children under five years of age from 1990 through March1998 to be 227,000 ~ double those of the previous decade. Garfield estimatedthat the numbers to be 350,000 through 2000 (based in part on result of anotherstudy). (7)However, there are limitations to his study. His figures werenot updated for the remaining three years of the sanctions. Also, two othersomewhat vulnerable age groups were not studied: young children above the ageof five and the elderly.All of these reports were considerable indicators of massivenumbers of deaths which the U.S. was aware of and which was a part of itsstrategy to cause enough pain and terror among Iraqis to cause them to revoltagainst their government.
C: Iraq-U.S. Warstarted in 2003 and has not been concluded
Just as the end of the Cold War emboldened the U.S. to attackIraq in 1991 so the attacks of September 11, 2001 laid the groundwork for theU.S. to launch the current war against Iraq. While in some other wars welearned much later about the lies that were used to deceive us, some of thedeceptions that were used to get us into this war became known almost as soonas they were uttered. There were no weapons of massdestruction, we were not trying to promote democracy, we were not trying tosave the Iraqi people from a dictator.The total number of Iraqi deaths that are a result of our currentIraq against Iraq War is 654,000, of which 600,000 are attributed to acts ofviolence, according to Johns Hopkins researchers. (1,2)Since these deaths are a result of the U.S. invasion, ourleaders must accept responsibility for them.
About 100,000 to 200,000 Israelis and Palestinians, but mostlythe latter, have been killed in the struggle between those two groups. The U.S.has been a strong supporter of Israel, providing billions of dollars in aid andsupporting its possession of nuclear weapons. (1,2)
KOREA,NORTH AND SOUTH
The Korean War started in 1950 when, according to the Trumanadministration, North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25th. However, sincethen another explanation has emerged which maintains that the attack by NorthKorea came during a time of many border incursions by both sides. South Koreainitiated most of the border clashes with North Korea beginning in 1948. The NorthKorea government claimed that by 1949 the South Korean army committed 2,617armed incursions. It was a myth that the Soviet Union ordered North Korea toattack South Korea. (1,2)The U.S. started its attack before a U.N. resolution was passedsupporting our nation’s intervention, and our military forces added to themayhem in the war by introducing the use of napalm. (1)During the war the bulk of the deaths were South Koreans, NorthKoreans and Chinese. Four sources give deaths counts ranging from 1.8 to 4.5million. (3,4,5,6) Another source gives a total of 4 million but does notidentify to which nation they belonged. (7)John H. Kim, a U.S. Army veteran and the Chair of the KoreaCommittee of Veterans for Peace, stated in an article that during the KoreanWar “the U.S. Army, Air Force and Navy were directly involved in the killing ofabout three million civilians – both South and North Koreans – at manylocations throughout Korea…It is reported that the U.S. dropped some 650,000tons of bombs, including 43,000 tons of napalm bombs, during the Korean War.”It is presumed that this total does not include Chinese casualties.Another source states a total of about 500,000 who were Koreansand presumably only military. (8,9)
From 1965 to 1973 during the Vietnam War the U.S. dropped overtwo million tons of bombs on Laos ~ more than was dropped in WWII by bothsides. Over a quarter of the population became refugees. This was later calleda “secret war,” since it occurred at the same time as the Vietnam War, but gotlittle press. Hundreds of thousands were killed. Branfman make the onlyestimate that I am aware of, stating that hundreds of thousands died. This canbe interpreted to mean that at least 200,000 died. (1,2,3)U.S. military intervention in Laos actually began much earlier.A civil war started in the 1950s when the U.S. recruited a force of 40,000Laotians to oppose the Pathet Lao, a leftist political party that ultimatelytook power in 1975.Also See Vietnam
Between 8,000 and 12,000 Nepalese have died since a civil warbroke out in 1996. The death rate, according to Foreign Policy in Focus,sharply increased with the arrival of almost 8,400 American M-16 submachineguns (950 rpm) and U.S. advisers. Nepal is 85 percent rural and badly in needof land reform. Not surprisingly 42 % of its people live below the povertylevel. (1,2)In 2002, after another civil war erupted, President George W.Bush pushed a bill through Congress authorizing $20 million in military aid tothe Nepalese government. (3)
In 1981 the Sandinistas overthrew the Somoza government inNicaragua, (1) and until 1990 about 25,000 Nicaraguans were killed in an armedstruggle between the Sandinista government and Contra rebels who were formedfrom the remnants of Somoza’s national government. The use of assassinationmanuals by the Contras surfaced in 1984. (2,3)The U.S. supported the victorious government regime by providingcovert military aid to the Contras (anti-communist guerrillas) starting inNovember, 1981. But when Congress discovered that the CIA had supervised actsof sabotage in Nicaragua without notifying Congress, it passed the BolandAmendment in 1983 which prohibited the CIA, Defense Department and any othergovernment agency from providing any further covert military assistance. (4)But ways were found to get around this prohibition. The National Security Council,which was not explicitly covered by the law, raised private and foreign fundsfor the Contras. In addition, arms were sold to Iran and the proceeds werediverted from those sales to the Contras engaged in the insurgency against theSandinista government. (5)Finally, the Sandinistas were voted out of office in 1990 byvoters who thought that a change in leadership would placate the U.S., whichwas causing misery to Nicaragua’s citizenry by it support of the Contras.
In 1971 West Pakistan, an authoritarian state supported by theU.S., brutally invaded East Pakistan. The war ended after India, whose economywas staggering after admitting about 10 million refugees, invaded East Pakistan(now Bangladesh) and defeated the West Pakistani forces. (1)Millions of people died during that brutal struggle, referred toby some as genocide committed by West Pakistan. That country had long been anally of the U.S., starting with $411 million provided to establish its armedforces which spent 80% of its budget on its military. $15 million in armsflowed into W. Pakistan during the war. (2,3,4)Three sources estimate that 3 million people died and (5,2,6)one source estimates 1.5 million. (3)
In December, 1989 U.S. troops invaded Panama, ostensibly toarrest Manuel Noriega, that nation’s president. This was an example of the U.S.view that it is the master of the world and can arrest anyone it wants to. Fora number of years before that he had worked for the CIA, but fell out of favorpartially because he was not an opponent of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. (1) Ithas been estimated that between 500 and 4,000 people died. (2,3,4)
See South America: Operation Condor
The Philippines were under the control of the U.S. for over ahundred years. In about the last 50 to 60 years the U.S. has funded andotherwise helped various Philippine governments which sought to suppress theactivities of groups working for the welfare of its people. In 1969 theSymington Committee in the U.S. Congress revealed how war material was sentthere for a counter-insurgency campaign. U.S. Special Forces and Marines wereactive in some combat operations. The estimated number of persons that wereexecuted and disappeared under President Fernando Marcos was over 100,000.(1,2)
SOUTHAMERICA: OPERATION CONDOR
This was a joint operation of 6 despotic South Americangovernments (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) to shareinformation about their political opponents. An estimated 13,000 people werekilled under this plan. (1)It was established on November 25, 1975 in Chile by an act ofthe Interamerican Reunion on Military Intelligence. According to U.S. embassypolitical officer, John Tipton, the CIA and the Chilean Secret Police wereworking together, although the CIA did not set up the operation to make thiscollaboration work. Reportedly, it ended in 1983. (2)On March 6, 2001 the New York Times reported the existence of arecently declassified State Department document revealing that the UnitedStates facilitated communications for Operation Condor. (3)
Since 1955, when it gained its independence, Sudan has beeninvolved most of the time in a civil war. Until about 2003 approximately 2million people had been killed. It not known if the death toll in Darfur ispart of that total.Human rights groups have complained that U.S. policies havehelped to prolong the Sudanese civil war by supporting efforts to overthrow thecentral government in Khartoum. In 1999 U.S. Secretary of State MadeleineAlbright met with the leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) whosaid that she offered him food supplies if he would reject a peace plansponsored by Egypt and Libya.In 1978 the vastness of Sudan’s oil reserves was discovered andwithin two years it became the sixth largest recipient of U.S, military aid.It’s reasonable to assume that if the U.S. aid a government to come to power itwill feel obligated to give the U.S. part of the oil pie.A British group, Christian Aid, has accused foreign oilcompanies of complicity in the depopulation of villages. These companies ~ notAmerican ~ receive government protection and in turn allow the government useof its airstrips and roads.In August 1998 the U.S. bombed Khartoum, Sudan with 75 cruise missiles.Our government said that the target was a chemical weapons factoryowned by Osama bin Laden. Actually, bin Laden was no longer the owner, and theplant had been the sole supplier of pharmaceutical supplies for that poor nation.As a result of the bombing tens of thousands may have diedbecause of the lack of medicines to treat malaria, tuberculosis and otherdiseases. The U.S. settled a lawsuit filed by the factory’s owner. (1,2)
See South America: Operation Condor
In Vietnam, under an agreement several decades ago, there wassupposed to be an election for a unified North and South Vietnam. The U.S.opposed this and supported the Diem government in South Vietnam. In August,1964 the CIA and others helped fabricate a phony Vietnamese attack on a U.S.ship in the Gulf of Tonkin and this was used as a pretext for greater U.S.involvement in Vietnam. (1)During that war an American assassination operation, calledOperation Phoenix, terrorized the South Vietnamese people, and during the warAmerican troops were responsible in 1968 for the mass slaughter of the peoplein the village of My Lai.According to a Vietnamese government statement in 1995 thenumber of deaths of civilians and military personnel during the Vietnam War was5.1 million. (2)Since deaths in Cambodia and Laos were about 2.7 million (SeeCambodia and Laos) the estimated total for the Vietnam War is 7.8 million.The Virtual Truth Commission provides a total for the war of 5million, (3) and Robert McNamara, former Secretary Defense, according to theNew York Times Magazine says that the number of Vietnamese dead is 3.4 million.(4,5)
Yugoslavia was a socialist federation of several republics.Since it refused to be closely tied to the Soviet Union during the Cold War, itgained some suport from the U.S. But when the Soviet Union dissolved,Yugoslavia’s usefulness to the U.S. ended, and the U.S and Germany worked toconvert its socialist economy to a capitalist one by a process primarily ofdividing and conquering. There were ethnic and religious differences betweenvarious parts of Yugoslavia which were manipulated by the U.S. to cause severalwars which resulted in the dissolution of that country.From the early 1990s until now Yugoslavia split into severalindependent nations whose lowered income, along with CIA connivance, has madeit a pawn in the hands of capitalist countries. (1) The dissolution ofYugoslavia was caused primarily by the U.S. (2)Here are estimates of some, if not all, of the internal wars inYugoslavia.All wars: 107,000; (3,4)Bosniaand Krajina: 250,000; (5)Bosnia: 20,000 to 30,000; (5)Croatia: 15,000; (6) andKosovo: 500 to5,000. (7)
1. Mark Zepezauer, Boomerang (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003), p.135.
2. Chronology of American StateTerrorism
3. Soviet War in Afghanistan
4. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p.76
5. U.S Involvement in Afghanistan,Wikipedia
6. The CIA’s Intervention inAfghanistan, Interview with Zbigniew Brzezinski, Le Nouvel Observateur, Paris,15-21 January 1998, Posted at globalresearch.ca 15 October 2001, http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/BRZ110A.html
7. William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000), p.5
8. Unknown News, http://www.unknownnews.net/casualtiesw.html
1. Howard W. French “From Old Files,a New Story of the U.S. Role in the Angolan War” New York Times 3/31/02
2. Angolan Update, American FriendsService Committee FS, 11/1/99 flyer.
3. Norman Solomon, War Made Easy,(John Wiley & Sons, 2005) p. 82-83.
4. Lance Selfa, U.S. Imperialism, ACentury of Slaughter, International Socialist Review Issue 7, Spring 1999 (asappears in Third world Traveler www.thirdworldtraveler.com/American_Empire/Century_Imperialism.html)
5. Jeffress Ramsay, Africa,(Dushkin/McGraw Hill Guilford Connecticut), 1997, p. 144-145.
6. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p.54.
See South America: Operation Condor
1. Phil Gunson, Guardian, 5/6/02,
2. Jerry Meldon, Return of Bolilvia’sDrug – Stained Dictator, Consortium, www.consortiumnews.com/archives/story40.html.
See South America: Operation Condor
1. Virtual Truth Commission
2. David Model, President RichardNixon, Henry Kissinger, and the Bombing of Cambodia excerpted from the bookLying for Empire How to Commit War Crimes With A Straight Face, Common CouragePress, 2005, paper
3. Noam Chomsky, Chomsky on Cambodiaunder Pol Pot, etc.,
1. William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000), p. 151-152 .
2. Richard Keeble, Crimes AgainstHumanity in Chad, Znet/Activism 12/4/06
1. Parenti, Michael, The Sword andthe Dollar (New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1989) p. 56.
2. William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000), p. 142-143.
3. Moreorless: Heroes and Killers ofthe 20th Century, Augusto Pinochet Ugarte,
4. Associated Press, Pincohet on 91stBirthday, Takes Responsibility for Regimes’s Abuses, Dayton Daily News 11/26/06
5. Chalmers Johnson, Blowback, TheCosts and Consequences of American Empire (New York: Henry Holt and Company,2000), p. 18.
1. Chronology of American StateTerrorism, p.2
2. William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000), p. 163.
3. Millions Killed by ImperialismWashington Post May 6, 2002)
4. Gabriella Gamini, CIA Set Up DeathSquads in Colombia Times Newspapers Limited, Dec. 5, 1996, www.edu/CommunicationsStudies/ben/news/cia/961205.death.html).
5. Virtual Truth Commission, 1991
Human Rights Watch Report: Colombia’sKiller Networks ~ The Military-Paramilitary Partnership).
1. St. James Encyclopedia of PopularCulture ~ on Bay of Pigs Invasion
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (FORMERLY ZAIRE)
1. F. Jeffress Ramsey, Africa(Guilford Connecticut, 1997), p. 85
2. Anup Shaw The Democratic Republicof Congo, 10/31/2003)
3. Kevin Whitelaw, A Killing inCongo, U. S. News and World Report
4. William Blum, Killing Hope(Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995), p 158-159.
5. Ibid.,p. 260
6. Ibid.,p. 259
8. David Pickering, “World War inAfrica, 6/26/02,
9. William D. Hartung and BridgetMoix, Deadly Legacy; U.S. Arms to Africa and the Congo War, Arms Trade ResourceCenter, January , 2000
1. Norman Solomon, (untitled)Baltimore Sun April 26, 2005
Intervention Spin Cycle
Intervention Spin Cycle
3. William Blum, Killing Hope(Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995), p. 175.
4. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p.26-27.
1. Virtual Truth Commission,
2. Matthew Jardine, UnravelingIndonesia, Nonviolent Activist, 1997)
3. Chronology of American StateTerrorism
4. William Blum, Killing Hope(Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995), p. 197.
5. US trained butchers of Timor, TheGuardian, London. Cited by The Drudge Report, September 19, 1999.
1. Robert T. Buckman, Latin America2003, (Stryker-Post Publications Baltimore 2003) p. 152-153.
2 William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000), p. 54-55.
3 .El Salvador, Wikipedia
4. Virtual Truth Commission
1. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p. 66-67.
2. Stephen Zunes, The U.S. Invasionof Grenada,
1. Virtual Truth Commission
3. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p.2-13.
4. Robert T. Buckman, Latin America2003 (Stryker-Post Publications Baltimore 2003) p. 162.
5. Douglas Farah, Papers Show U.S.Role in Guatemalan Abuses, Washington Post Foreign Service, March 11, 1999, A26
1. Francois Duvalier,
2. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p 87.
3. William Blum, Haiti 1986-1994: WhoWill Rid Me of This Turbulent Priest, http://www.doublestandards.org/blum8.html
1. William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000), p. 55.
2. Reports by Country: Honduras,Virtual Truth Commission
3. James A. Lucas, Torture Gets TheSilence Treatment, Countercurrents, July 26, 2004.
4. Gary Cohn and Ginger Thompson,Unearthed: Fatal Secrets, Baltimore Sun, reprint of a series that appeared June11-18, 1995 in Jack Nelson-Pallmeyer, School of Assassins, p. 46 Orbis Books2001.
5. Michael Dobbs, Negroponte’s Timein Honduras at Issue, Washington Post, March 21, 2005
1. Edited by Malcolm Byrne, The 1956Hungarian Revoluiton: A history in Documents November 4, 2002
2. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia,
1. Virtual Truth Commission
2. Editorial, Indonesia’s Killers,The Nation, March 30, 1998.
3. Matthew Jardine, IndonesiaUnraveling, Non Violent Activist Sept–Oct, 1997 (Amnesty) 2/7/07.
4. Sison, Jose Maria, Reflections onthe 1965 Massacre in Indonesia, p. 5.
5. Annie Pohlman, Women and theIndonesian Killings of 1965-1966: Gender Variables and Possible Direction forResearch, p.4,
6. Peter Dale Scott, The UnitedStates and the Overthrow of Sukarno, 1965-1967, Pacific Affairs, 58, Summer1985, pages 239-264.
7. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p.30.
1. Geoff Simons, Iraq from Sumer toSaddam, 1996, St. Martins Press, NY p. 317.
2. Chronology of American StateTerrorism
3. BBC 1988: US Warship Shoots DownIranian Airliner
IRAN ~ IRAQ WAR
1. Michael Dobbs, U.S. Had Key rolein Iraq Buildup, Washington Post December 30, 2002, p A01 http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer
2. Global Security.Org , Iran IraqWar (1980-1980)
U.S. IRAQ WAR AND SANCTIONS
1. Ramsey Clark, The Fire This Time(New York, Thunder’s Mouth), 1994, p.31-32
2. Ibid., p. 52-54
3. Ibid., p. 43
4. Anthony Arnove, Iraq Under Siege,(South End Press Cambridge MA 2000). p. 175.
5. Food and Agricultural Organization,The Children are Dying, 1995 World View Forum, International Action Center,International Relief Association, p. 78
6. Anthony Arnove, Iraq Under Siege,South End Press Cambridge MA 2000. p. 61.
7. David Cortright, A Hard Look atIraq Sanctions December 3, 2001, The Nation.
U.S ~ IRAQ WAR 2003-?
1. Jonathan Bor 654,000 Deaths Tiedto Iraq War Baltimore Sun , October 11,2006
ISRAELI ~ PALESTINIAN WAR
1. Post-1967 Palestinian &Israeli Deaths from Occupation & Violence May 16, 2006 http://globalavoidablemortality.blogspot.com/2006/05/post-1967-palestinian-israeli-deaths.html)
2. Chronology of American StateTerrorism
1. James I. Matray Revisiting Korea:Exposing Myths of the Forgotten War, Korean War Teachers Conference: The KoreanWar, February 9, 2001
2. William Blum, Killing Hope(Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995), p. 46
3. Kanako Tokuno, Chinese WinterOffensive in Korean War – the Debacle of American Strategy, ICE Case StudiesNumber 186, May, 2006
4. John G. Stroessinger, Why Nationsgo to War, (New York; St. Martin’s Press), p. 99)
5. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia,as reported in Answers.com
6. Exploring the Environment: KoreanEnigma
7. S. Brian Wilson, Who are the RealTerrorists? Virtual Truth Commission
8. Korean War Casualty Statistics
9. S. Brian Wilson, Documenting U.S.War Crimes in North Korea (Veterans for Peace Newsletter) Spring, 2002)
1. William Blum Rogue State (Maine,Common Cause Press) p. 136
2. Chronology of American StateTerrorism
3. Fred Branfman, War Crimes inIndochina and our Troubled National Soul
1. Conn Hallinan, Nepal & theBush Administration: Into Thin Air, February 3, 2004
2. Human Rights Watch, Nepal’s CivilWar: the Conflict Resumes, March 2006 )
3. Wayne Madsen, Possible CIA Hand inthe Murder of the Nepal Royal Family, India Independent Media Center, September25, 2001
1. Virtual Truth Commission
2. Timeline Nicaragua
3. Chronology of American StateTerrorism,
4. William Blum, Nicaragua 1981-1990Destabilization in Slow Motion
5. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia,
1. John G. Stoessinger, Why NationsGo to War, (New York: St. Martin’s Press), 1974 pp 157-172.
2. Asad Ismi, A U.S. – FinancedMilitary Dictatorship, The CCPA Monitor, June 2002, Canadian Centre for PolicyAlternatives
3. Mark Zepezauer, Boomerang (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003), p.123, 124.
4. Arjum Niaz ,When America Look theOther Way by,
5. Leo Kuper, Genocide (YaleUniversity Press, 1981), p. 79.
6. Bangladesh Liberation War ,Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
1. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’s GreatestHits, (Odonian Press 1998) p. 83.
2. William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000), p.154.
3. U.S. Military Charged with MassMurder, The Winds 9/96,
4. Mark Zepezauer, CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p.83.
See South America: Operation Condor
1. Romeo T. Capulong, A Century ofCrimes Against the Filipino People, Presentation, Public Interest Law Center,World Tribunal for Iraq Trial in New York City on August 25,2004.
2. Roland B. Simbulan The CIA inManila – Covert Operations and the CIA’s Hidden Hisotry in the PhilippinesEquipo Nizkor Information – Derechos, derechos.org/nizkor/filipinas/doc/cia.
SOUTH AMERICA: OPERATION CONDOR
1. John Dinges, Pulling Back the Veilon Condor, The Nation, July 24, 2000.
2. Virtual Truth Commission, Tellingthe Truth for a Better America
3. Operation Condor
1. Mark Zepezauer, Boomerang, (Monroe,Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003), p. 30, 32,34,36.
2. The Black Commentator, AfricaAction The Tale of Two Genocides: The Failed US Response to Rwanda and Darfur,11 August 2006
See South America: Operation Condor
1. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S GreatestHits (Monroe, Maine:Common Courage Press,1994), p 24
2. Casualties – US vs NVA/VC,
3. Brian Wilson, Virtual TruthCommission
4. Fred Branfman, U.S. War Crimes inIndochiona and our Duty to Truth August 26, 2004
5. David K Shipler, Robert McNamaraand the Ghosts of Vietnam
1. Sara Flounders, Bosnia Tragedy:The Unknown Role of the Pentagon in NATO in the Balkans (New York:International Action Center) p. 47-75
2. James A. Lucas, MediaDisinformation on the War in Yugoslavia: The Dayton Peace Accords Revisited,Global Research, September 7, 2005
3. Yugoslav Wars in 1990s
4. George Kenney, The BosniaCalculation: How Many Have Died? Not nearly as many as some would have youthink., NY Times Magazine, April 23, 1995
5. Chronology of American StateTerrorism
6. Croatian War of Independence,Wikipedia
7.Human Rights Watch, New Figures onCivilian Deaths in Kosovo War, (February 7, 2000) http://www.hrw.org/press/2000/02/nato207.htm.